The credit is nonrefundable and can not be carried back. The Hope Credit is inaccessible for practically any sum paid in 1997. But, about the flip side, reduce the quantity of your tax liability dollar for dollar. The textbook charge is an excess credit you get if you fulfill the requirements for that education level. A non refundable credit might be implemented to some tax liability, but it canstay within the amount the taxpayer owes. Read more “In other words a thesis comes while the most important job as it pertains to instructional progress.”
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(I) The document needs to be called “Article Watch – your name” and it should be saved as a word document.
(II) The text needs to be written in the following font and size: Arial, 12.
(III) It must be written in English. (IV) Since it is a short article, you can use 1 page and a half maximum. (V) It has to be about the COVID-19 crisis. You can choose to write about a specific country and its measures, on how the World Health Organization is dealing with this pandemic or you can also make it personal and just share with us what you think of this crisis.
(VI) It must be submitted until 23h59 (GMT+1) from May 9. Each article will be published in our blog, but only one writer will be the lucky winner! If we have less then 3 articles to consider, there won’t be a prize at all – they will be published though.
We will choose the winner taking into account the scholarship regulation from the LisboMUN Association, adapted to the Article Watch. The chosen text will get the application fee ( 15 euros) from the Virtual MUN paid by our association. If you haven’t checked our social media yet, you should! The conference will happen via Zoom and Mural and the World Health Assembly (committee) will be discussing “The WHO post-COVID-19: Improving the global governance of future pandemics”. Check this MUN official account on Instagram: @virtualmodelun! Friendly note: if you want to previously register for this MUN, in order to start your research, and it turns out that you are the winner: no worries! We will refund you the 15 euros. If you have any questions, don’t hesitate to contact us through our social media or e-mail! We can’t wait to read your articles!
Right to the Future
By Leonor Tavares
Climate Change, how many of us have already heard about this issue? Probably all, but have we ever done changes in our life according to this reality? Probably not, because it is too hard for us to understand that lots of species as our own are in great danger. Why don’t we do something, then? Because to make a difference and try to minimize or even revert this process called climate change that we are responsible for, we need to change our way of thinking and living (this phenomenon is a process expected to have unprecedented implications on where people can settle, grow food, build cities, and rely on functioning ecosystems for the services they provide. In many places, temperature changes and sea-level rise are already putting ecosystems under stress and affecting human well-being.)
When we were little, we learned that we have to reduce, recycle and reuse, but the truth is that we only do the recycle, which seems to be the easiest and enough, but is not. The most important “R” policy we need to follow is the hardest one, Reduce.
Reduce our consumption, our will to buy everything we don’t need or to use once and throw it way. We have to stop with this idea that everything is disposable and disappears without any consequence, as we have the oceans and sanitary fields to show us how bad this situation has become.
Therefore, I would like to introduce briefly four problems that together contribute for the so-called Climate Change:
One of the strongest industries in the world, and the one that has been keeping us for making so many important changes, when it comes to cars and electricity. This is one of those cases, where we have already the good options, but because of financial interests we are still relying on bad ones and all of us will and are already paying for this delay. It goes without saying that we need to make choices that show we are supportive of more renewable energies and solar power, and that we are in favor of riding a bike, walking, using the subway or even if it is possible buy electric cars. The use of so much fossils fuels increases the greenhouse gases emissions, one of biggest causes of temperature rise. In fact, if we think just about the damages that are made to find fossil fuels, such as the destruction of mountains and the drillings, which destroys huge amounts of land and ecosystems for something that will be inevitably exhausted in a matter of years. It doesn’t make sense, after all, having new alternatives will always be necessary, why not start now? If people are waiting to change when fossil fuels ends, then we may say that there is nothing to be done, because the planet doesn’t have that time to wait for a change.
The production of palm oil
This issue is not so well known but is one of the reasons why so many forests are being destroyed, like the Amazon Forest (the lung of the planet) and as consequence species and ecosystems are vanished forever. The only way to change this situation is to stop buying products that have this ingredient. So, there are many foods we need to look at very carefully, for example peanut butter, cookies, cereals, sauces, chocolate, vegetal creams. Actually, by doing this, it won’t just help the environment, it will help our health too, considering that palm oil is a fat that is not very good for us and is not that hard to find good food without this ingredient, I say it from experience.
The meat production
A well- known issue, which problem is due to the fact of releasing huge quantities of methane, a gas composed with twenty-three molecules of CO2, which means is even worse than C02 itself. In addition, the production of meat also requires more 50 times resources, like water and land than the production of vegetables and fruit. Again, this demands a change in people’s behavior, there is no need to stop eating meat now forever, but reduce considerably the amount we eat, so instead of eating meat every day, try eating three times per week. Remember, the most important rule, reduce our consumption. We hear most people saying that they can’t live without meat, but that is not true, because there are amazing vegetarian substitutes that people should really try instead of saying they don’t like it. So, buy tofu or seitan and make it with mushrooms, spices and tomatoes sauce and you definitely won’t regret it. There are various options, we just need to look for it and try them. People can’t just ignore this reality, if we need to change, we have to start now and starts in our food habits, despite the fact human beings hate to change habits, the effort must be done for a greater achievement, the well-being of our planet.
The last one to present, yet definitely as important as the others. For the last few years everything has been wrapped up in plastic and now it seems no one knows how to live without it, although 60 years ago there wasn’t so much plastic being use, and life was fine.
We need to stop accepting plastic glasses and plates, we have to deny plastic bags, we have to try to buy food that is not wrapped in plastic, and if we buy bananas understand there is no need for a plastic bag to carry them, the same goes to other products. Until big companies follow the example of Ikea, that recently announce that is going to stop selling disposal plastic, it’s in people’s hands to show they don’t want more plastic.
This material, besides being made from fossil fuels, which is another reason to leave it once and for all, has been making big damages in our environment. By 2050, the oceans will have more plastic than fish in the sea. As we know, fish and other beings consume this plastic, and the chemicals and particulars of it stays with them, and if we do eat them it transfers to us too, in behalf of all of us being connected in this big chain. But, we don’t even have to go so deep, just the fact that takes decades to decay has already allowed the existence of 3 amounts of plastic that are three times the size of France.
Thus, none of this is a far away problem, that doesn’t affect us, because every problem related to our planet it will always affect us, as long as we depend on it to live.
These are just some of the reasons that are contributing to the environmental crisis we are facing today, which results in high temperatures- the global temperature has already rise almost 1ºC above the normal values, which has an enormous impact on the stability of the climate and the way we keep on going it won’t stop here, it will achieve much higher values and the effects are devastating. Other consequence is the ice melting in Antarctica, as the release of the methane kept in it, then the rise of the level of the oceans, leading to the disappearance of islands and parts of countries near the sea and the lack of resources and land, which populations need to survive.
The first places to feel more these extreme effects will be the poorest like India, Africa and Bangladesh, the ones that have already lack of resources and conditions. However, this brings another huge problem: more emigrant crisis and conflicts. Most of this countries’ population will have the urge to emigrate to countries that still have resources, and so the refugee crisis we hear about today will only get bigger. All these issues show how important is this matter to the ones living in this planet, because the price we and other species have to pay is unbearable.
We are living a very unstable political period, and when it comes to this issue, we may feel that the ones in power are the ones that can make the change and they are not willing to do. However, the changes/ revolutions our society has been through is due to a great deal of people creating movements to fight for some greater cause and from that society change and consequently the government decisions do to. By looking in our history, we can see that the biggest conquest we made are because of the will and unity of people, and this situation requires exactly the same. Together, we can fight for our planet, but everyone has to do their part!
Let’s not lose hope and act on it, otherwise we are doomed and quitters for giving up our beautiful planet. We have to be realistic and see that we have this huge problem and we must move to get out of it, since we don’t see the most powerful countries or the majority of big companies doing it. For example, the Paris Agreement was a big step for all the countries to take action for our environment, but we know that some did not go through of it, like the USA that has withdrawal from it. This mean, that we are the ones that have to take the lead, so that things can change, as history has shown us several times.
In conclusion, I challenge everyone to reflect in their habits, to start being aware of the choices they make and its consequences. For the right to have a future, we need to try to reduce this effects in order to the planet earth reach a stable climate again, like the specialist Piers Sellers said it was possible, but unless all of us act for it, it will not be possible, and the time is counting.
From the bottom to the to the top, we must go!
By Sara Félix
Greece – country, nation, common space for westerners, and, I would say, also easterners. Cradle of the western civilization, where philosophy, democracy and demagogy were exponentiated, created and acclaimed. A lot of what we are and what we know today stems from here. However, bygone centuries, we witness this nation losing its identity, and today Greece lives a crisis, economic, humanitarian and of values.
We need to look at the worldwide changes that have been occurring in the past decades. As it is known, ever since the Syrian War broke out, following the Arab Spring in 2011 thousands of Syrians embarked on a journey that threatens their own lives to reach European soil. Nevertheless, even though the focus has been this particular massive migration at a global scale, this is something that has been occurring from time immemorial. Europe has been the elected place of many, receiving people from Africa, Asia (and some might even consider Eastern Europe, if one is thinking of Western Europe). Yet, ever since the Syrian migration began, with such never before seen proportions, it was shown, and it has been continuously shown, that the European infrastructures and structures do not possess the capacity to receive that amount of people that every day, whom, in despair and in life danger, resorted to the remote European lands to try to achieve, hopefully, a life and place where they are not woken up at dawn by incessant bombs explosions.
Greece and Italy were the elected countries of many for this arrival, given the maritime proximity between Northern Africa and Southern Europe, since a vast majority of these migrants travel by boat, many illegally, where they lose their belongings, documentation and even relatives.
From a legal perspective, a mistake has been made, since these people are commonly referred to as “refugees”, which is not correct. This is because one can only acquire the status of “refugee” after he/she reaches a safe country and requests for asylum. The request is analysed, either in the light of the 1951 United Nations Refugee Convention or the respective national Asylum Laws, which in Europe are the result of the transposition of the 2004/83/CE and 2005/85/CE Directives. For example, Looking at the Portuguese Asylum Act, The right of asylum is granted for 5 reasons: “Foreign nationals and stateless persons who are being persecuted or face a serious threat of persecution, as a result of their activities in the State of their nationality or their usual residence in favour of democracy, social and national liberties, peace among peoples, freedom and human rights are guaranteed the right to asylum” (Article 3(1)) and “Foreign nationals or stateless persons who justifiably fear persecution by virtue of their race, religion, nationality, political opinions or being part of certain social group and cannot or, due to such a fear, do not wish to return to the State of their nationality or usual residence, are also entitled to be granted asylum” (Article 3(2)).
As I have mentioned, one of the preferred places has been Greece, even before the Syrian migratory flow. However, besides this, the country itself went through a very troubled phase, when in 2008 the economic crisis erupted leading to an unemployment rate of more than 20%, which, in turn, lead to discontentment, unrest and consequently also a social crisis.
It happened that this economic and social crisis coincided with Greece’s most significant migrant crisis, which resulted in unimaginable problems. Right away, those who were afraid of losing their jobs and related to extreme right-wing parties started to threaten and attack asylum seekers, which created conflicts and situations that truly shocked the international community.
Furthermore, and in spite of the enormous effort of the Greek people to try to create minimal sustainable conditions for these people whilst they were retained in the Greek islands, due to the 2016 EU-Turkey Agreement – which foresees that as from 20 March 2016 all irregular migrants that came from Turkish soil into the Greek islands should either request asylum or otherwise they would be returned to Turkey – the situation deteriorated. Each day, more and more requests to the Greek authorities would arrive, and still arrive nowadays, being harder and harder to analyse all of these requests. This created violence waves amongst these populations, who wished to go into Europe and not be stranded in an island.
However, not only was Greece in this dangerous humanitarian crisis, since these people not only did not have conditions to live, in addition to also not being granted freedom and being even threatened by right-wing extremists, but also the country suffered “sanctions” from some Member States in accordance with the Dublin III Regulation.
This Regulation establishes that the first European country in which the person that requests asylum entered in Europe is the one responsible for the request procedure, besides establishing an asylum seeker transfer system. It is predictable that, according to this Regulation, most of the cases were of Greece’s responsibility, since it is one of the “entrance points” to Europe. Therefore, in 2008 many countries suspended their transfers to Greece, which is still today a reality, due to the delay and the conditions offered during the analysis of the request. The M.S.S. v Belgium and Greece case, which reached the European Court of Human Rights, highlights the inefficacy of the Greek system and the meagre conditions in which the asylum seekers are in whilst waiting for the decision. This case and the ever more severe realities led to Greece’s inability of providing the necessary support to asylum seekers being recognized.
The world we currently live in does not chart us an easy path. It is slippery and full of rocks, and the required effort is ever growing, at an individual, but also at a nation-wide scale. It requires not only the country to regulate this humanitarian situation, but also all of Europe to unite, cooperate and work together to allow these asylum seekers to be granted their status of refugees so they can, finally, live safely, in a place far from home, but close to peace.